Abstract Chemical analysis showed that Colchicum candidum contained many biologically active components. Nine alkaloids (3-demethylcolchicine, 2-demethylcolchicine, colchifoline, N-deacetyl-N-formylcolchicine, colchicine, cornigerine, 2-demethyldemecolcine, 3-demethyldemecolcine and demecolcine) were isolated from seven Colchicum species. Twenty phenolic compounds were also identified in extracts from five Colchicum species. The previous pharmacological studies showed that Colchicum candidum possessed antioxidant, antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects, while, colchicine possessed antitumoral and antiinflammatory properties and has still kept its importance in the treatment of gout and many other diseases, such as familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), Behçet’s syndrome, chirosis, psoriasis and many other dermatological diseases. This review was designed to highlight the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Colchicum candidum.