Abstract Investigations on metal halide systems carried out by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry in the period 1990-2014 are reviewed in the present paper.163 original papers were published focused on metal halides showing still considerable activity in this area. The fundamentals of the Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry method and thermodynamic background of the investigation are briefly reported. Data to the system studied, temperature ranges, Knudsen cell materials, vapor species identified in the equilibrium vapors and the thermodynamic properties obtained in the study are presented. The important issues of metal halide vaporization studies are briefly discussed and commented.
The studies of the vaporization of metal halogens by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry aimed firstly atthe determination of gaseous complexes species in the vapor and determination of its thermodynamic data like sublimation enthalpy etc. and secondly at the determination of negative ions formation and various ion-molecule equilibria reactions of metal halide systems. Many of the studied materials have a crucial role for modern technologies, for example metal halide lamps, hot corrosion caused by halide salts, phosphorus recovery technologies or gas assisted separation of lanthanides. The investigation of such systems gives information on mechanisms of vaporization, volatility of the systems under various conditions (temperature, pressure etc.), reactivity, thermal stability, resistance etc. that could be further applied for various calculations and to predict the behavior of various components under various technological aspects.
Keywords metal halides, Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS), HTMS, thermochemistry, high temperature, vaporization