Abstract The effect of aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus (F) on acetaminophen-induced wistar albino rats was investigated. 25 male wistar rats were randomly shared into 5 groups of 5 rats per group and aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus was administered orally to rats in groups 2 and 3 at 100 and 200mg/kg/per day respectively for twenty one days while, group4 received 100mg/kg body weight of vitamin C. Acetaminophen (1 mg/kg) was then administered to rat groups 2-5 daily for the same period of study. Blood samples were collected on the 22nd day of study and were used to determine, the glucose level, ALT and albumin concentrations using standard kits. The results showed significant increase in the level of ALT in rat group5 (77.3 ±5.87) compared to group 1 (58.5±4.5). Meanwhile, ALT levels decreased significantly in Citrullus lanatus extract treated groups 2 and 3, (71.6±5.8 and 74.5 ± 4.5) respectively, compared to untreated group5, p<0.05.
Albumin level increased significantly, in rats group 5, (52.1±5.8) when compared to rats in normal control group 1(35.4±3.6). However, these values decreased significantly in extract treated groups 2 and 3; (38.7±3.8 and 42.0 ±4.9) respectively, when compared to rats in untreated groups, p<0.05.Glucose level significantly increase in rats in group 5, (5.2 ± 5.8) as compared to rats in normal group1, (4.2 ± 2.9). However, it decreased significantly in rats treated with extract groups 2 and 3; (4.3 ± 3.9 and 4.7 ± 5.2) respectively, when compared with rats in untreated groups, p≤ 0.05. Rats in group5 showed significant increase in weight (8.0 ± 7.7) when compared to rat group 1 ((7.13 ± 5.87), p≤ 0.05. There was significant decrease in the weights of rats treated with extracts (groups 2 and 3); (6.36 ± 2.5 and 6.78 ± 3.38) respectively, when compared to rats in normal and untreated groups, p≤0.05. In conclusion, aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus administered orally as low as 100mg/kg reduces glucose, ALT levels and mediate appreciable weight loss, which may be chemically beneficial to individuals at risk of diabetes and hepatocellular diseases.