Abstract Drug-induced kidney disease constitutes an important cause of acute renal failure and chronic kidney disease. Drug-induced nephrotoxicity refers to kidney damage induced by medication administered for the purpose of diagnosing or treating another medical disorder. It is more commonly recognized in dogs. And although drug-induced nephrotoxicity may occur in dogs of any age, older dogs are more susceptible. The kidney is an organ susceptible to the injurious effects of the drugs because of its functional properties. Understanding the mechanisms of nephrotoxicity enables the planning of preventive strategies. Antibiotic associated renal failure is predominantly noted with the use of aminoglycoside antibiotics though it may also occur with beta-lactam, vancomycin, sulfonamides and antifungal antibiotics. Aminoglycosides are very often associated with nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and neuromuscular blockage. An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a serious concern for practicing veterinarians and other health professionals, and refers to an unintended, undesired and unexpected response to a drug that negatively affects the patient’s health. It may be iatrogenic or genetically induced, and may result in death of the affected animal. So, in this prospective review, we attempt to bring forth the commonly occurring adverse drug reactions, antibiotics induced nephrotoxicity, underlying mechanism, and the treatment& prevention.